This section contains an updated overview of the progress achieved in the climate policy field in the beneficiary countries based on analysis of the EU Progress Reports, the INDCs, the recently submitted National communications (NCs) and Biennial Update Reports (BURs) and feedback from the key climate policy stakeholders in the beneficiary countries.
The comparative analysis of the INDCs of the beneficiary countries reveals a large variation in the level of ambition compared with 1990 emissions. The two INDCs for which background analysis was prepared under the ECRAN project (Albania and Montenegro) are the most ambitious. This not only indicates the success of the ECRAN project but also emphasises the need for extensive awareness and capacity building in the region to strengthen the NDCs to be submitted by 2020 under the Paris agreement and transpose and implement the EU climate acquis. The project is expected to contribute to these objectives. The references which served as the basis for the analysis are listed in Annex 7.
The generally low level of climate change mitigation ambitions reflects not only political priorities in the region, but also the low level of trust placed in the data, including baselines and projections, and in the modelling capacity. Many countries have decided to play it safe by pledging INDC contributions with relatively low levels of ambition. For 4 out of 6 countries the coverage of sectors and/ or gases was limited due to data issues, or emissions from land use change were not considered. Most of the countries relied heavily on foreign experts in preparing INDCs, and only Turkey and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia demonstrated higher levels of in-country expertise. Therefore, one of the project objectives is to strengthen national capacities in planning and implementing climate policies and measures in line with the EU 2030 climate and energy package and the Governance of the Energy Union proposal. The following chapters provide brief overviews of climate policy-making situation in individual countries.
ALBANIA BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA THE FORMER YUGOSLAV REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA KOSOVO* MONTENEGRO SERBIA TURKEY
* This designation is without prejudice to positions on status, and it is in line with UNSCR 1244 and the ICJ Opinion on the Kosovo declaration of independence.